বৃহস্পতিবার, ৩১ জানুয়ারী, ২০১৩

The Best Wines to Avoid a Wine Hangover | Wine Folly

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There are few ailments that can ruin your night faster than a wine headache. A dull thudding starts in the back of your neck and slowly pulses its way to the middle of your forehead. Game over. Worse still is the next morning when you wake up with a wine hangover. So?

Is there a wine that won?t give you a hangover?

The short answer is yes. Certain red wines are less likely to give you a hangover based on both chemical properties and the psychology of how we consume them. Given the ideal red wine, there is one more major factor that will help you avoid a wine hangover

With every glass of wine, drink a glass of water.

Wines That Won?t Hurt You as Bad

When looking for a wine that is less likely to give you a hangover, pay attention to these characteristics.


  • finca villacreces pruno ribera del duero Spanish Tempranillo
    Medium Bodied

    Such as ?Pruno? Tempranillo. Less extracted wines that are less sensitive; requiring less additives.

  • deloach-2011-pinot-noir-heritage-reserve
    Less Manipulated

    Wineries that focus on less manipulation such as Deloach cannot hide hangover-giving wine faults like Acetaldehyde.

  • Travaglini Gattinara Nebbiolo based wine
    Moderate Tannin

    Wines with higher tannin such as Travaglini Gattinara made with Nebbiolo will encourage you to drink more water.

  • Domaine-Vincent-Girardin-Moulin-a-Vent-Domaine-de-la-Tour-du-Bief-2009
    Lower Alcohol

    A wine with less alcohol like Beaujolais will reduce ethanol consumption per drink. Look for wines under 13% ABV

Major causes of a wine hangover

Toxic Chemicals

There is one major organic chemical compound in wine, beer and other spirits that has been shown to increase the occurences of severe hangovers. The chemical, Acetaldehyde, is a byproduct your body produces while metabolizing ethanol. Liquor with higher levels of Acetaldehyde (considered a wine fault) have been shown to cause a more severe hangover.

Red wine has lowest levels of Acetaldehyde.

Our noses are able to detect Acetaldehyde levels above 125 mg/L as a fruity, sour green apple aroma. Wines with high levels of this chemical include Sherry, Brandy and some sweet wines. Red wines start at close to 4 mg/L.

Aren?t sulfites and tannin bad? Find out how sulfites in wine are not the real problem.



The major cause of a wine hangover is dehydration. Alcohol is a diuretic that inherently causes hypoglycemia. This is a major factor to the common Red Wine Headache. Doing things like eating food and drinking more water will help avoid a hangover more than your wine selection.

Red wine makes us thirsty.

A higher tannin red wine makes our mouth feel dry and encourages more water drinking. Unlike beer, white wine or Champagne, red wine?s undervalued benefit is that red wine doesn?t quench thirst.

Awesome resources
What wines have the highest Acetaldehyde Dr. Waterhouse at US Davis
Alcohol effects information How Alcohol Is Metabolized in the Human Body
Tom Cannavan?s Wine Pages on Acetaldehyde and Sherry Aroma
Acetaldehyde on wikipedia

By Madeline Puckette
I'm a certified wine geek with a passion for meeting people, travel, and delicious food. You often find me crawling around dank cellars or frolicking through vineyards.

Source: http://winefolly.com/tutorial/the-best-wines-to-avoid-a-wine-hangover/

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Judge Okays BP Plea, $4B Penalty in Gulf Oil Spill

A U.S. judge accepted an agreement by BP Plc to plead guilty for its role in the Deepwater Horizon disaster and pay a record $4 billion in criminal penalties for the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history.

The company said it pleaded guilty to 11 felony counts related to workers? deaths, a felony related to obstruction of Congress and two misdemeanors. It faces five years? probation and the imposition of two monitors who will oversee its safety and ethics for the next four years.

After the April 2010 explosion on the Transocean rig in the Gulf of Mexico, 4.9 million barrels of oil spewed into the Gulf over 87 days. Shorelines from Texas to Florida were fouled before responders could cap the mile-deep (1.6 km) well.

BP has struggled with political, financial and legal fallout ever since. Even after settling federal criminal charges, the company faces civil penalties of up to $21 billion and separate state claims due to be heard at a trial starting in New Orleans on Feb. 25.

Alabama?s attorney general, Luther Strange, said the BP sentence was welcome for setting some federal money aside to restore the Gulf coast, but he planned to press ahead with his state?s own claims for economic and natural resource damages.

?I look forward to presenting Alabama?s case that BP was grossly negligent when we have our day in court next month,? Strange said in a statement.

Transocean, owner of the doomed Deepwater Horizon rig, agreed this month to pay $1.4 billion to settle U.S. government charges over the disaster.

Halliburton Co, the oilfield services company that performed cementing work on the Macondo well and is being sued in the civil litigation along with BP, said on Friday it was working on its defense ahead of the trial next month.

BP, with its federal plea agreement now approved, has 60 days to send a remedial plan to the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Environmental Protection Agency laying out how it plans to meet all its stipulations. The plan could go back and forth among the three parties before it is agreed to by all sides.

The judge who imposed the sentence on BP, U.S. District Judge Sarah Vance of the Eastern District of Louisiana, found the fines far exceeded any in U.S. history, and were structured so BP will feel the ?full brunt? of them, the DOJ said.

BP?s total of $4.5 billion in federal penalties includes $2.4 billion for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, a $1.256 billion criminal fine and $350 million for the National Academy of Sciences ? all payable over five years ? and a $525 million civil penalty to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

?Our guilty plea makes clear, BP understands and acknowledges its role in that tragedy, and we apologize ? BP apologizes ? to all those injured and especially to the families of the lost loved ones,? Luke Keller, a vice president of BP America Inc, told the court, according to a BP statement.

BP now aims to settle the civil claims, for which negligence is a key issue. A gross negligence finding could quadruple civil damages owed by BP under the Clean Water Act to $21 billion.

The British company has already announced an uncapped class-action settlement with private plaintiffs that the company estimates will cost $7.8 billion to resolve. The litigation was brought by more than 100,000 individuals and businesses claiming economic and medical damages from the spill.

BP believes it can handle it all after selling off $35 billion worth of assets. As of November, when it agreed to the plea, BP had paid $23 billion in clean-up costs and claims.

The U.S. government banned BP from new federal contracts over its ?lack of business integrity? in the spill, which could threaten its role as a leading U.S. offshore oil and gas producer.

But BP said on Tuesday that its mandatory debarment under the settlement did not affect any existing contracts or leases.

?The government has awarded BP over 50 federal leases since the Deepwater Horizon accident,? said BP, which is the largest investor and deepwater leaseholder in the Gulf of Mexico with interests in 700 blocks and seven rigs now operating there.

The criminal case is?USA v. BP Exploration and Production Inc, case no. 2:12-CR-00292, in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana in New Orleans.

Source: http://www.claimsjournal.com/news/national/2013/01/30/221996.htm

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French foreign minister: Troops to leave Mali soon

Chadian soldiers patrol the streets of Gao, northern Mali, Tuesday Jan. 29, 2013, days after Malian and French military forces closed in and retook the town from Islamist rebels. Earlier Tuesday, four suspected extremists were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

Chadian soldiers patrol the streets of Gao, northern Mali, Tuesday Jan. 29, 2013, days after Malian and French military forces closed in and retook the town from Islamist rebels. Earlier Tuesday, four suspected extremists were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

Chadian soldiers patrol the streets vacated by Islamic extremists in Gao, Northern Mali, Tuesday Jan. 29, 2013, days after Malian and French military forces closed in and retook the town from Islamist rebels. Earlier Tuesday, four suspected extremists were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

Angry crowds shout at suspected Islamist extremists in the back of an army truck in Gao, northern Mali, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013. Four suspects were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

A Malian man walks by a fabric store in the central market in Gao, northern Mali, Tuesday Jan. 29, 2013, days after Malian and French military forces closed in and retook the town from Islamist rebels. Earlier Tuesday, four suspected extremists were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

A French soldier lights up a cigarette outside a food store in Gao, northern Mali, Tuesday Jan. 29, 2013, days after Malian and French military forces closed in and retook the town from Islamist rebels. Earlier Tuesday, four suspected extremists were arrested after being found by a youth militia calling themselves the "Gao Patrolmen". Malian soldiers prevented the mob from lynching them. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

SEVARE, Mali (AP) ? France's foreign minister said Wednesday that French forces would depart Mali "quickly" following their success in taking control of the airport in Kidal, a key position in the last remaining urban stronghold of Islamist extremists in northern Mali.

French and Malian troops have recaptured two of the other provincial capitals, Timbuktu and Gao, in recent days. Once France, with its thousands of troops, fighter planes and helicopters, leaves, Mali's weak army and soldiers from neighboring countries Islamists might be hard-pressed to retain control of northern Mali's cities if the Islamists attempt a comeback from their desert hideouts.

"Now it's up to African countries to take over," French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius told Le Parisien newspaper. "We decided to put the means ? in men and supplies ? to make the mission succeed and hit hard. But the French aspect was never expected to be maintained. We will leave quickly."

Haminy Maiga, the interim president of the Kidal regional assembly, said French forces met no resistance when they arrived late Tuesday.

"The French arrived at 9:30 p.m. aboard four planes, which landed one after another. Afterwards they took the airport and then entered the town, and there was no combat," said Maiga, who had been in touch with people in the town by satellite phone as all the normal phone networks were down.

"The French are patrolling the town and two helicopters are patrolling overhead," he added.

In Paris, French army Col. Thierry Burkhard confirmed that the airport was taken overnight and described the operation in Kidal itself as "ongoing."

On Tuesday, a secular Tuareg rebel group had asserted that they were in control of Kidal and other small towns in northern Mali. Maiga said those fighters had left Kidal and were at the entry posts on the roads from Gao and Tessalit.

France, the former colonial ruler, began sending in troops, helicopters and warplanes on Jan. 11 to turn the tide after the armed Islamists began encroaching on the south, toward the capital. French and Malian troops seized Gao during the weekend and took Timbuktu on Monday. The Islamists gave up both cities and retreated into the surrounding desert.

In Gao's main market, women returned to work on Wednesday without the black veils required by the Islamists. They wore vibrant patterned fabrics and sported makeup.

While most crowds in the freed cities have been joyful, months of resentment toward the Islamists bubbled into violence in Gao.

Video footage filmed by an amateur cameraman and obtained by The Associated Press shows a mob attacking the symbol of the extremists' rule, the Islamic police headquarters.

Some celebrate cheering "I am Malian," while others armed with sticks and machetes attack suspected members of the Islamist regime. The graphic images shot Saturday show the mob as they mutilate the corpses of two young suspected jihadists lying dead in the street.

Gao's mayor and governor met Wednesday with community elders in an attempt to bring a halt to the vigilante attacks.

There are 3,500 French troops involved in the operation and 2,900 Africans, according to the latest figures from the French Defense Ministry.

Mali's military was severely affected by a military coup last year coup and has a reputation for disorganization and bad discipline. Malian soldiers have been accused of fatally shooting civilians suspected of links to the Islamists. The military has promised to investigate the allegations.


Associated Press writers Baba Ahmed in Segou, Mali; Lori Hinnant in Paris; and Andrew Drake and Jerome Delay in Gao, Mali contributed to this report.

Associated Press

Source: http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/3d281c11a96b4ad082fe88aa0db04305/Article_2013-01-30-Mali%20Fighting/id-6c3be0de022445938b9695da0aee4307

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SALE 15% Off - Stationery Set of 8 Folded Cards - Vintage Floral Motif - Wedding Thank You Notes - Gift for Her by MaiAutumn

Set of 8 cards featuring the original watercolor painting by Christine Lindstrom.

Comes with lovely Mai Autumn packaging inside a sturdy plastic box.

- Set of 8 blank cards with light green A2 envelopes (recycled kraft envelopes are also available - leave a note at checkout if you would like to switch your envelopes)
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Source: http://www.etsy.com/listing/67779327/sale-15-off-stationery-set-of-8-folded

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বুধবার, ৩০ জানুয়ারী, ২০১৩

Nightclub fire highlights Brazil's safety laws

A man cries during a protest near the Kiss nightclub where a fire killed over 230 people in Santa Maria, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013. The blaze began at around 2:30 am local time on Sunday, during a performance by Gurizada Fandangueira, a country music band that had made the use of pyrotechnics a trademark of their shows. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

A man cries during a protest near the Kiss nightclub where a fire killed over 230 people in Santa Maria, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013. The blaze began at around 2:30 am local time on Sunday, during a performance by Gurizada Fandangueira, a country music band that had made the use of pyrotechnics a trademark of their shows. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

A woman holds up a black banner as people protest near the Kiss nightclub where a fire killed over 230 people in Santa Maria, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013. The Rio Grande do Sul state forensics department raised the death toll Tuesday from 231 to 234 to account for three victims who did not appear on the original list of the dead. Authorities say more than 120 people remain hospitalized for smoke inhalation and burns, with dozens of them in critical condition, after the Sunday nightclub fire. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

A makeshift memorial that include pictures of the victims of the Kiss nightclub fatal fire is seen inside the gymnasium where a collective funeral was held a day earlier, in Santa Maria, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013. A fast-moving fire roared through the crowded, windowless nightclub, early Sunday, killing more than 230 people. The first funeral services were held Monday for the victims. Most of the dead were college students 18 to 21 years old, but they also included some minors. Almost all died from smoke inhalation. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

This photo released by Policia Civil do Rio Grande do Sul, shows the inside of the Kiss nightclub where a fire killed more than 230 people in Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2012. The blaze began at around 2:30 am local time on Sunday, during a performance by Gurizada Fandangueira, a country music band that had made the use of pyrotechnics a trademark of their shows. (AP Photo/Policia Civil do Rio Grande do Sul)

In this photo released by Policia Civil do Rio Grande do Sul, a police officer inspects victims' belongings after a fire at the Kiss nightclub in Santa Maria City, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2012. The blaze began at around 2:30 am local time on Sunday, during a performance by Gurizada Fandangueira, a country music band that had made the use of pyrotechnics a trademark of their shows. (AP Photo/Policia Civil do Rio Grande do Sul)

(AP) ? Flammable and toxic foam soundproofing on the ceiling. Just one exit for a club that could hold hundreds of people. Not a ceiling water sprinkler system in sight.

These are some of the main causes of the massive death toll in a nightclub fire in Brazil. And none broke any law, raising questions about safety regulations in a nation set to host the World Cup and Olympic Games.

Documents obtained by The Associated Press, including past building and fire safety plan permits issued to the Kiss club, where more than 230 people died within minutes in a fire early Sunday, showed that such deadly choices were within regulations.

"Do I agree with the fact that there was only one exit? No. Do I agree that the roof was covered with flammable material? No, I don't," said Maj. Gerson Pereira, an inspector with the local fire department. "I would have liked to shut down this place, but then the firefighters could be sued" because no law had been broken.

But the same documents also illustrate that other regulations were broken, including irregularities in the fire safety inspection of the club, as well as violations by the band the club hired whose pyrotechnics are blamed for causing the blaze. Police inspectors say any of these violations were reason enough to shut the club down.

One document shows that the club had already been labeled by fire officials as being at "medium" risk for having a fire. By state law, that designation requires that the club undergo annual inspections. But records show that the last inspection took place in August 2011.

Survivors of the fire have said that the club's fire extinguishers failed to work in early attempts to battle the blaze. Under state law, an extinguisher must have a receipt showing that it had been independently inspected within a year in order for it to be acceptable.

Marcelo Arigony, the lead police investigator in the case, said in a Tuesday press conference that it was clear the fire extinguishers had not been inspected and that they were clearly cheap models that should not be used anywhere.

Perhaps most egregious was what authorities point to as the cause of the fire, whose death toll rose to 235 when a young man died of burn injuries late Tuesday.

The blaze began at around 2:30 a.m. local time during a performance by Gurizada Fandangueira, a country music band that had made the use of pyrotechnics a trademark of their shows. The band's guitarist told media that the 615-square-meter (6,650-square-foot) club was packed with an estimated 1,200 to 1,300 people, the same estimate police have given. Capacity for the club, however, is under 700.

Police said that members of the band knowingly bought flares meant for outdoor use because they cost a mere $1.25 a piece, compared with the $35 price tag for an indoor flare.

"It's not that this club was working to come within this or that law ? the place should have never been open in the first place," Arigony said. "This is a problem that is seen across Brazil, these laws. I can only hope this tragedy brings about change."

Jaime Moncada, a U.S.-based fire-safety consultant with nearly three decades experience in Latin America including large projects in Brazil, said he was not surprised that one exit was permissible under local law.

Shown a blueprint of the club obtained by the AP, he calculated that the farthest point from the front door was 105 feet (32 meters), and regulations in most Brazilian states dictate that a second exit is required only if the distance is 131 feet (40 meters) or more.

For the same reason of distance, Moncada said sprinklers and alarms would not be required.

"For an American audience, it is crazy to think that a place would have only one exit," he said.

In Brazil, he added, that would be the norm.

In the United States, the club would have failed an inspection in at least three ways, according to Moncada: Three separate exits would have been required; the foam would need to be treated with a fire retardant; and it would need sprinklers.

Brazil is the globe's fifth-largest economy by some measures, but it lags far behind others in terms of fire safety standards, according to several fire-safety experts with experience here.

One reason: State laws are written by fire-fighting officials who do not seek input from engineers specializing in areas such as fire dynamics, how flames affect different materials and computer models that can devise the best evacuation procedures, according to Rodrigo Machado Tavares, an engineer and fire-safety consultant based in Sao Paulo.

What's more, state, city and expert groups can offer conflicting suggestions.

In Sao Paulo ? where a series of large fires in the 1970s prompted an early round of safety regulations that became a model nationally ? there are three ways to calculate how wide a staircase needs to be for safe evacuation, Tavares said.

"You'll get three different numbers; it's very confusing," he said.

And enforcement often is lacking. In academic research, Tavares found that in the northeastern port city of Recife, most buildings do not have the required fire alarms. It's the same in much of Brazil, he said.

Amid the shock of what was the world's deadliest nightclub fire in a decade, changes in Brazil seemed on the horizon.

In Brasilia, the nation's capital, lawmakers in the lower house worked on a proposal that would require federal safety minimum standards across Brazil. Now states individually create such laws. The O Globo newspaper reported on its website that the mayor's office in Santa Maria ordered all nightclubs closed for 30 days while inspections are carried out.

Elsewhere, the government of the country's biggest city, Sao Paulo, set to host the opening match of the 2014 World Cup, promised tougher security regulations for nightclubs.

The Folha de S. Paulo newspaper reported that in Manaus, which will also host World Cup matches, nightclubs with empty fire extinguishers and unmarked emergency exits have been shut down and fined. And in Olympic host city, Rio de Janeiro, a consumer complaint hotline has received more than 60 calls since Sunday's tragedy denouncing hazardous conditions at night spots, theaters, supermarkets, schools, hospitals and shopping malls.

Outraged citizens in Santa Maria are demanding change.

Elise Parode, an 18-year-old student taking part in a protest before City Hall, chanted with all her might along with about 500 others, pushing up against the door of the building as municipal guards kept them from entering.

"We want justice! We want the government held accountable, just like the owners of the bar!" she yelled as the crowd around held aloft poster-size photos of the fire's victims. "Our own government doesn't know the laws ? we're not safe until they do."


Associated Press writers Bradley Brooks in Santa Maria and Justin Pritchard in Los Angeles contributed to this report.

Associated Press

Source: http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/3d281c11a96b4ad082fe88aa0db04305/Article_2013-01-30-LT-Brazil-Nightclub-Fire/id-f8858aac32164b21b67dd7915eed6156

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The BlackBerry Q10 Is A Curious Blend Of Old And New

bbq10-1You know, for a company that made its mark thanks to devices with physical QWERTY keyboards, BlackBerry really didn't spend much time chatting about the Q10. It's going to hit the street well after the all-touch Z10 does so it's an understandable move, but I've heard many a person begrudgingly stick with an ailing BlackBerry because of its top-notch keyboard. Thankfully, I managed to corner a Q10 for a little hands-on time, and its keyboard is just as good as ever -- the big question is, how's the rest of it?

Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Techcrunch/~3/RdF668Zz57o/

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Video: Matthews: The ?nay? votes don?t have it?Kerry is confirmed

>>> let me finish tonight can this. john terry was just confirmed as secretary of state. the decision by the senate left only three members voting nay. who they are tells you a lot. most importantly how excellent this disappointment was for the president. one was cruz. how interesting. here are two people who fought for their country, been in it, the vietnam war who've been awarded medals. ted cruz was never serving in the military but insists these veterans don't deserve the offices to which the president has appointed them. don't you just love these people? they don't like the military enough to join it. they dump on people who have served then have the brass to call for more wars. in fact, a regular flow of wars. asked the typical hawk, he thought a bad idea. putting our marines into lebanon, somalia. they like them all. not only that but they are always ready for another. iraq, yes. afghanistan, yes. iraq again, yes. iran, let's go! why do people listen to these types? why the knee jerk salute every time one of these hawks itches for another conflict? i'm glad we've got kerry as secretary of state now. for the same reason there is still a perez. i'm glad we had ike in the 1950s to keep us out of indochina. because of the people who have seen war, felt it, been in it, been hurt by it are the very people i want deciding on when and whether we go to another. and

Source: http://video.msnbc.msn.com/hardball/50632226/

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Dear Prudence: Marijuana Mentor

To temporarily turn off Social Reading, toggle the social reading button to OFF at the top of this box or in the toolbar areas of this page. This will allow you to see what your friends have read but won't show your reading activity on Slate.

Source: http://feeds.slate.com/click.phdo?i=54e5297b225a5c4b9e90e297681317a7

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Airlines previously replaced batteries on 787s

13 hrs.

Japan's two biggest airlines replaced below-par lithium-ion batteries on their Boeing Co 787 Dreamliners in the months before separate incidents led to the technologically advanced aircraft being grounded worldwide due to battery problems.?

Comments from both All Nippon Airways, the new Boeing jetliner's biggest customer to date, and Japan Airlines Co Ltd point to reliability issues with the batteries long before a battery caught fire on a JAL 787 at Boston's airport and a second battery was badly charred and melted on an ANA domestic flight that was forced into an emergency landing.?

ANA said it changed 10 batteries on its 787s last year, but did not inform accident investigators in the United States because the incidents, including five batteries that had unusually low charges, did not compromise the plane's safety, spokesman Ryosei Nomura said on Wednesday.?

JAL also replaced batteries on the 787 "on a few occasions", said spokeswoman Sze Hunn Yap, declining to be more specific on when units were replaced or whether these were reported to authorities.?

The Federal Aviation Administration tells NBC News that neither ANA nor Boeing ever notified the agency of that batteries were replaced on 787s prior to the emergency landing in Japan.

However,?ANA did inform Boeing of the faults that began in May, and returned the batteries to their manufacturer, GS Yuasa Corp. A spokesman for the battery maker declined to comment on Wednesday. Shares of the company fell 1.2 percent.?

Boeing CEO Jim McNerney, speaking on a conference call, said that the company is making progress toward narrowing down the potential cause of the battery incidents. In a separate statement, Boeing said the numerous replacements were not made because of safety concerns.?"Batteries are a replaceable unit on airplanes, regardless of the technology used."?


National?Transportation?Safety?Board investigators have asked Boeing Co. to provide a full operating history of lithium-ion batteries used in its grounded 787 Dreamliners.

Under aviation inspection rules, airlines are required to perform detailed battery inspections once every two years.?

Officials are carrying out detailed tests on the batteries, chargers and monitoring units in Japan and the United States, but have so far made little headway in finding out what caused the battery failures.?

Japan's transport ministry said the manufacturing process at the company which makes the 787 battery's monitoring unit did not appear to be linked to the problem on the ANA Dreamliner that made the emergency landing.?

The NTSB said on Tuesday it was carrying out a microscopic investigation of the JAL 787 battery. Neither it nor the Japan Transport Safety Board has been able to say when they are likely to complete their work.?

The global fleet of 50 Dreamliners - 17 of which are operated by ANA - remain grounded, increasing the likely financial impact to Boeing, which is still producing the aircraft but has stopped delivering them, and the airlines that fly the Dreamliner.?

Boeing said Wednesday that it expected no significant impact to its earnings from the grounding of the 787s. The airplane maker posted a stronger-than-expected fourth-quarter profit with net income of $978 million, down from $1.39 billion in the same period a year ago, when it had a special gain from taxes.?

NBC News' Tom Costello contributed to this report.

Copyright 2013 Thomson Reuters.

Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/business/boeing-787-battery-had-issues-recent-incidences-1B8174274

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South Korea launches first civilian rocket amid tensions with North

SEOUL | Wed Jan 30, 2013 12:38pm EST

SEOUL (Reuters) - South Korea launched its first space rocket carrying a science satellite on Wednesday amid heightened regional tensions, caused in part, by North Korea's successful launch of its own rocket last month.

It was South Korea's third attempt to launch a civilian rocket to send a satellite in orbit in the past four years and came after two previous launches were aborted at the eleventh hour last year due to technical glitches.

The launch vehicle, named Naro, lifted off from South Korea's space center on the south coast and successfully went through stage separation before entering orbit, officials at the mission control said. Previous launches failed within minutes.

South Korea's rocket program has angered neighbor North Korea, which says it is unjust for it to be singled out for U.N. sanctions for launching long-range rockets as part of its space program to put a satellite into orbit.

North Korea's test in December showed it had the capacity to deliver a rocket that could travel 10,000 km (6,200 miles), potentially putting San Francisco in range, according to an intelligence assessment by South Korea.

However, it is not believed to have the technology to deliver a nuclear warhead capable of hitting the continental United States.

The test in December was considered a success, at least partially, by demonstrating an ability to put an object in space.

But the satellite, as claimed by the North, is not believed to be functioning.

South Korea is already far behind regional rivals China and Japan in the effort to build space rockets to put satellites into orbit and has relied on other countries, including Russia, to launch them.

Launch attempts in 2009 and 2010 ended in failure.

The first stage booster of the South Korean rocket was built by Russia. South Korea has produced several satellites and has relied on other countries to put them in orbit.

South Korea wants to build a rocket on its own by 2018 and eventually send a probe to the moon.

(Reporting by Jack Kim; Editing by Sanjeev Miglani)

Source: http://feeds.reuters.com/~r/reuters/scienceNews/~3/uZ8bMkiHSLo/us-korea-rocket-idUSBRE90T0A320130130

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Male dancers signal their strength to men and women

Jan. 28, 2013 ? Heterosexual men pick up clues about other men's physical qualities from their dance moves just as heterosexual women do, say researchers at Northumbria University.

A study, led by psychologist Dr Nick Neave and researcher Kristofor McCarty, used 3D motion-capture technology and biomechanical analyses to examine the extent to which male dancing provides clues about the dancer's physical strength and fitness to both male and female observers.

The findings, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, suggest that male observers pick up on the strength of their potential rivals for female mates.

Researchers at Northumbria's School of Life Sciences filmed 30 males, aged 19-37, as they danced to a basic drum rhythm. Participants also completed a fitness test and assessments of upper and lower body strength. The dance clips were converted into virtual humanoid characters (avatars) and rated by women and men on perceived dance and physical qualities. The ratings were then correlated with various biomechanical indices.

The results showed that both sexes found significant positive associations between an individual's hand grip strength and their perceived dance quality, these qualities were picked up by the size and vigour of the movements of the upper body and arms.

Although it is traditionally thought that signals given off by men when they dance have been designed -- like animal mating displays -- to be interpreted as clues of their physical attributes to the opposite sex, it seems that heterosexual men are also making use of these signals, presumably to detect a potential love rival.

Dr Nick Neave believes that this increased sensitivity to male qualities by other heterosexual men may be due to intrasexual rivalry -- men sizing up the strength and virility of their competition.

He said: "Rated dance quality was positively associated with actual grip strength and these clues of upper-body strength were most accurately picked up by male observers. This ability to discern upper-body strength is principally because men are looking for cues of 'formidability' in other males.

"Upper-body strength is highly related to fighting ability as it reflects the ability to do damage, especially in intra-sexual conflicts. The ability to gauge strength before potential conflicts is sensible, especially to other males."

Also part of the research team were Northumbria University academics Dr Nick Caplan and Johannes H?nekopp, with Bernard Fink, from the Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of G?ttingen, Germany.

The study, "Male body movements as possible cues to physical strength: a biomechanical analysis", is published online in this month's American Journal of Human Biology

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Northumbria University.

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Journal Reference:

  1. N. Neave et al. Male body movements as possible cues to physical strength: a biomechanical analysis. American Journal of Human Biology, 2013

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Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://feeds.sciencedaily.com/~r/sciencedaily/top_news/~3/P6rh0QRlHrQ/130128081946.htm

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This Is Why Vine Is Stupid

I don't get Vine. I don't give a looping turd about it. Every video I've seen so far is six seconds of jerky concentrated idiocy. I may be too old for this crap but I'm not alone—thanks, [Willa via Laughing Squid via Petapixel] More »

Source: http://feeds.gawker.com/~r/gizmodo/full/~3/XcJKgkKzY_A/this-is-why-vine-is-stupid

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মঙ্গলবার, ২৯ জানুয়ারী, ২০১৩

Immigration reform seen boosting US economic growth

2 hrs.

The sluggish U.S. economy could get a lift if President Barack Obama and a bipartisan group of senators succeed in what could be the biggest overhaul of the nation's immigration system since the 1980s.?

Relaxed immigration rules could encourage entrepreneurship, increase demand for housing, raise tax revenues and help reduce the budget deficit, economists said.?

By helping more immigrants enter the country legally and allowing many illegal immigrants to remain, the United States could help offset a slowing birth rate and put itself in a stronger demographic position than aging Europe, Japan and China.?

"Numerous industries in the United States can't find the workers they need, right now even in a bad economy, to fill their orders and expand their production as the market demands," said Alex Nowrasteh, an immigration specialist at the libertarian Cato Institute.?

The emerging consensus among economists is that immigration provides a net benefit. It increases demand and productivity, helps drive innovation and lowers prices, although there is little agreement on the size of the impact on economic growth.?

First Thoughts: Obama to embrace Senate immigration deal

President Barack Obama plans to launch his second-term push for a U.S. immigration overhaul during a visit to Nevada on Tuesday and will make it a high priority to win congressional approval of a reform package this year, the White House said.?

The chances of major reforms gained momentum on Monday when a bipartisan group of senators agreed on a framework that could eventually give 11 million illegal immigrants a chance to become American citizens.?

Their proposals would also include means to keep and attract workers with backgrounds in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. This would be aimed both at foreign students attending American universities where they are earning advanced degrees and high-tech workers abroad.?

An estimated 40 percent of scientists in the United States are immigrants and studies show immigrants are twice as likely to start businesses, said Nowrasteh.?

Boosting legal migration and legalizing existing workers could add $1.5 trillion to the U.S. economy over the next 10 years, estimates Raul Hinojosa-Ojeda, a specialist in immigration policy at the University of California, Los Angeles. That's an annual increase of 0.8 percentage points to the economic growth rate, currently stuck at about 2 percent.?

Other economists say the potential benefit to growth is much lower. Richard Freeman, an economist at Harvard, believes most of the benefits to the economy from illegal immigrants already in the United States has already been recorded and legalizing their status would produce only incremental benefits.?

While opposition to reform lingers on both sides of the political spectrum and any controversial legislation can easily meet a quick end in a divided Washington, the chances of substantial change seem to be rising. Top Republicans such as Governor Bobby Jindal of Louisiana are not mincing words about the party's need to appeal to the Hispanic community and foreign-born voters who were turned off by Republican candidate Mitt Romney's tough talk in last year's presidential campaign.?

A previous Obama plan, unveiled in May 2011, included the creation of a guest-worker program to meet agricultural labor needs and something similar is expected to be in his new proposal.?

The senators also indicated they would support a limited program that would allow companies in certain sectors to import guest workers if Americans were not available to fill some positions.?

An additional boost to growth could come from rising wages for newly legalized workers and higher productivity from the arrival of more highly skilled workers from abroad. Increased tax revenues would help federal and state authorities plug budget deficits although the benefit to government revenues will be at least partially offset by the payment of benefits to those who gain legal status.?

In 2007, the Congressional Budget Office estimated that proposed immigration reform in that year would have generated $48 billion in revenue from 2008 to 2017, while costing $23 billion in health and welfare payments.?

There is also unlikely to be much of a saving on enforcement from the senators' plan because they envisage tougher border security to prevent further illegal immigration and a crackdown on those overstaying visas.?

One way to bump up revenue, according to a report co-authored by University of California, Davis economist Giovanni Peri, would be to institute a cap-and-trade visa system. Peri estimated it could generate up to $1.2 billion annually.?

Under such a system, the government would auction a certain number of visas employers could trade in a secondary market.?

"A more efficient, more transparent and more flexible immigration system would help firms expand, contribute to more job creation in the United States, and slow the movement of operations abroad," according to a draft report, soon to be published as part of a study by the Hamilton Project, a think tank.?

There was no immediate sign that either the Obama or the senators' plan would include such a system.?

The long-term argument for immigration is a demographic one. Many developed nations are seeing their populations age, adding to the burden of pension and healthcare costs on wage-earners.?

Immigration in the United States would need to double to keep the working-age population stable at its current 67 percent of total population, according to George Magnus, a senior independent economic adviser at UBS in London,?

While Magnus says a change of that magnitude may prove too politically sensitive, the focus should be on attracting highly skilled and entrepreneurial immigrants in the way Canada and Australia do by operating a points system for immigrants rather than focusing mainly on family connections.?

"The trick is to shift the balance of migration towards those with education (and) skills," he added.?

Academics at major universities such as Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology often lament that many of their top foreign graduates end up returning to their home countries because visas are hard to get.?

"We have so much talent that is sitting here in the universities," said William Kerr, a professor at Harvard Business School. "I find it very difficult to swallow that we then make it so hard for them to stay."?

The last big amnesty for illegal immigrants was in 1986 when President Ronald Reagan legalized about 3 million already in the country. Numerous studies have shown that subsequently their wages rose significantly.?

Research on how immigration affects overall wages is inconclusive. George Borjas at Harvard says immigration has created a small net decrease in overall wages for those born in the United States, concentrated among the low-skilled, while Giovani Peri at UC Davis found that immigration boosts native wages over the long run.?

Hinojosa-Ojeda stresses that any reform needs to make it easier for guest workers to enter the country to avoid a new build-up of illegal workers.?

"If we don't create a mechanism that can basically bring in 300,000 to 400,000 new workers a year into a variety of labor markets and needs, we could be setting ourselves up for that again," said Hinojosa-Ojeda.?

Nowrasteh at Cato also believes an expanded guest worker program would stem illegal immigration and allow industries to overcome labor shortages.?

He found that harsher regulations in recent years in Arizona were adversely affecting agricultural production, increasing financial burdens on business and even negatively impacting the state's struggling real estate market.?

Some large companies have fallen foul of tougher enforcement regulations.?

Restaurant chain Chipotle Mexican Grill Inc fired roughly 500 staff in 2010 and 2011 after undocumented workers were found on its payrolls. Putting the chill on other employers, it is now subject of an ongoing federal criminal investigation into its hiring.?

"The current system doesn't seem to work for anyone," Chipotle spokesman Chris Arnold said.?

Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/business/economywatch/immigration-reform-seen-boosting-us-economic-growth-1C8159298

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James Lee, Jinnyboy and I talking about short films (The Star, 6th of ...

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Source: http://mojarkobis.blogspot.com/2013/01/james-lee-jinnyboy-and-i-talking-about.html

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Artificial pancreas: The way of the future for treating type 1 diabetes

Jan. 28, 2013 ? IRCM researchers, led by endocrinologist Dr. R?mi Rabasa-Lhoret, were the first to conduct a trial comparing a dual-hormone artificial pancreas with conventional diabetes treatment using an insulin pump and showed improved glucose levels and lower risks of hypoglycemia. Their results, published January 28 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), can have a great impact on the treatment of type 1 diabetes by accelerating the development of the external artificial pancreas.

The artificial pancreas is an automated system that simulates the normal pancreas by continuously adapting insulin delivery based on changes in glucose levels. The dual-hormone artificial pancreas tested at the IRCM controls glucose levels by automatically delivering insulin and glucagon, if necessary, based on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) readings and guided by an advanced algorithm.

"We found that the artificial pancreas improved glucose control by 15 per cent and significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycemia as compared with conventional insulin pump therapy," explains engineer Ahmad Haidar, first author of the study and doctoral student in Dr. Rabasa-Lhoret's research unit at the IRCM and at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at McGill University. "The artificial pancreas also resulted in an 8-fold reduction of the overall risk of hypoglycemia, and a 20-fold reduction of the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia."

People living with type 1 diabetes must carefully manage their blood glucose levels to ensure they remain within a target range. Blood glucose control is the key to preventing serious long-term complications related to high glucose levels (such as blindness or kidney failure) and reduces the risk of hypoglycemia (dangerously low blood glucose that can lead to confusion, disorientation and, if severe, loss of consciousness).

"Approximately two-thirds of patients don't achieve their target range with current treatments," says Dr. Rabasa-Lhoret, Director of the Obesity, Metabolism and Diabetes research clinic at the IRCM. "The artificial pancreas could help them reach these targets and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, which is feared by most patients and remains the most common adverse effect of insulin therapy. In fact, nocturnal hypoglycemia is the main barrier to reaching glycemic targets."

"Infusion pumps and glucose sensors are already commercially-available, but patients must frequently check the sensor and adjust the pump's output," says Mr. Haidar. "To liberate them from this sizable challenge, we needed to find a way for the sensor to talk to the pump directly. So we developed an intelligent dosing algorithm, which is the brain of the system. It can constantly recalculate insulin dosing based on changing glucose levels, in a similar way to the GPS system in a car, which recalculates directions according to traffic or an itinerary change."

The researchers' algorithm, which could eventually be integrated as software into a smart phone, receives data from the CGM, calculates the required insulin (and glucagon, if needed) and wirelessly controls the pump to automatically administer the proper doses without intervention by the patient.

"The system we tested more closely mimics a normal pancreas by secreting both insulin and glucagon," adds Dr. Laurent Legault, peadiatric endocrinologist and outgoing Director of the Insulin Pump Centre at the Montreal Children's Hospital, and co-author of the study. "While insulin lowers blood glucose levels, glucagon has the opposite effect and raises glucose levels. Glucagon can protect against hypoglycemia if a patient with diabetes miscalculates the necessary insulin dose."

"Our work is exciting because the artificial pancreas has the potential to substantially improve the management of diabetes and reduce daily frustrations for patients," concludes Dr. Rabasa-Lhoret. "We are pursuing our clinical trials to test the system for longer periods and with different age groups. It will then probably be introduced gradually to clinical practice, using insulin alone, with early generations focusing on overnight glucose controls."

This study was conducted with 15 adult patients with type 1 diabetes, who had been using an insulin pump for at least three months. Patients were admitted twice to the IRCM's clinical research facility and received, in random order, both treatments: the dual-hormone artificial pancreas and the conventional insulin pump therapy. During each 15-hour visit, their blood glucose levels were monitored as they exercised on a stationary bike, received an evening meal and a bedtime snack, and slept at the facility overnight.

Dr. Rabasa-Lhoret's research is funded by Diabetes Qu?bec, the Canadian Diabetes Association, and the IRCM's J.A. De S?ve Chair in clinical research. IRCM collaborators who contributed to study include Maryse Dallaire, Ammar Alkhateeb, Ad?le Coriati, Virginie Messier and Maude Millette.

About diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is a chronic, incurable disease that occurs when the body doesn't produce enough or any insulin, leading to an excess of sugar in the blood. It occurs most often in children, adolescents or young adults. People with type-1 diabetes depend on insulin to live, either through daily injections or with a pump. Diabetes is a major cause of vision loss, kidney and cardiovascular diseases.

According to the Canadian Diabetes Association, an estimated 285 million people worldwide are affected by diabetes, approximately 10 per cent of which have type 1 diabetes. With a further 7 million people developing diabetes each year, this number is expected to hit 438 million by 2030, making it a global epidemic.?

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Ahmad Haidar, Laurent Legault, Maryse Dallaire, Ammar Alkhateeb, Ad?le Coriati, Virginie Messier, Peiyao Cheng, Maude Millette, Benoit Boulet, Chiu-Ching Huang, R?mi Rabasa-Lhoret. Glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon delivery (dual-hormone artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2013 DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.121265

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://feeds.sciencedaily.com/~r/sciencedaily/~3/IsBFXJa7YCU/130128151928.htm

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Smaller Snacking is Smart Snacking: New study shows 'just a bite' will satisfy

Jan. 29, 2013 ? How much chocolate would you need to eat to be satisfied? Less than half as much as you think, according to this recently published Cornell University snacking study. Using chocolate chips, apple pie, and potato chips, researchers Ellen van Kleef, Mitsuru Shimizu, and Brian Wansink designed a study to determine if people who were given smaller portions of snack foods would feel hungrier or satisfied fifteen minutes after eating.

Two groups with different portion sizes were tested. The larger portion size group was given 100g of chocolate, 200g of apple pie, and 80g of potato chips, all slightly larger than the recommended portion sizes. This equaled 1370 calories in snack foods. The other group was given 10g, 40g, and 10g of these same foods respectively, for a total of 195 calories. The two groups were given as much time to eat as needed, and were asked to fill out surveys to rate the liking, familiarity, and boredom with the food. They were also asked to rate their hunger and craving before the food was presented and fifteen minutes after the taste tests ended.

The results remarkably showed that smaller portion sizes are capable of providing similar feelings of satisfaction as larger ones. Those given larger portions consumed 77% more food, amounting to 103 calories more, but they did not feel any appetite enhancing or stronger feelings of satiety than the group with the smaller portions. Overall these findings reflect the importance of portion size. While larger portions result in increased food intake, smaller portions may make you feel equally satisfied. The smaller portions can lead to a decline in hunger and desire that would help people limit their food intake. So, next time you are craving a snack food, remember that you can feel similarly satisfied with one handful as you would with two!

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Cornell Food & Brand Lab.

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Journal Reference:

  1. Ellen van Kleef, Mitsuru Shimizu, Brian Wansink. Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving. Food Quality and Preference, 2013; 27 (1): 96 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2012.06.008

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://feeds.sciencedaily.com/~r/sciencedaily/top_news/~3/5iCATKj7f_I/130129144815.htm

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Luxury cars buy into the downsizing trend

11 hrs.

For those attending the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this month, Mercedes-Benz has rolled out an all-new version of its big E-Class line-up. But for reporters who came into the Motor City early for the show?s media preview, Mercedes offered a sneak peek at the new CLA model it will formally introduce later this year.

Sharing a similar silhouette with the current CLS coupe-like sedan, the CLA will be the smallest model the German maker has ever sold in the United States, representing a significant shift not only for Mercedes but for the rest of the luxury car market.?

A quick survey of high-line manufacturers including Lincoln, Land Rover, BMW and Audi shows they?re all taking aim at downsized segments. That reflects some significant trends in the luxury market as buyers come to grips not only with rising fuel prices but increasingly crowded urban environments, analysts and industry planners suggest.

?If we want to grow and don?t want to lose our customers, we have to downsize,? contends Dieter Zetsche, Chairman of Daimler AG and chief of its Mercedes-Benz brand.

It?s not the first time the maker has pushed down-market. Mercedes made waves when it introduced its original C-Class ?Baby Benz? more than three decades ago. And in the ?90s, it tried pushing even lower with the stripped down C-Coupe. The C-Class is now one of the maker?s most popular products, though the smaller, lower-priced Coupe proved a flop and was quickly pulled from the lineup.?

Buyers were equally uninspired by the smaller, stripped-down version of the classic BMW 3-Series, the 318 Coupe.

Whether buyers will welcome even smaller models today remains to be seen, especially in the U.S. where ?it has always been bigger is better,? and buyers have measured luxury ? and the concurrent price tag ? by the inch and pound, said George Peterson, of consulting firm AutoPacific, Inc.

The C-Coupe and the BMW 318 were little more than econoboxes bearing luxury badges.? The new Mercedes CLA, however, will offer much more traditional luxury accoutrements, including leather seats, wood trim and the latest high-tech safety and infotainment systems, the maker promises.

That?s already a formula that works in Europe, said?Peterson. ?The idea that you make a statement by having the biggest car around isn?t quite the case anymore.? Now it?s more about the technology and features of the car.?

European makers have all added new downsized models, such as the BMW 1-Series and the Audi A2. The trend is apparent even in the luxury crossover segment where downsizing might once have seemed an oxymoron. BMW has had a hit with its X3 and now is offering the even smaller X1.

Slideshow: The 2013 Detroit Motor Show

Buick dealers are just taking delivery of the maker?s new Korean-made compact crossover, the Encore, which the General Motors mid-luxury brand hopes will help it attract an entirely new cohort of young, hip and increasingly affluent buyers.

Lincoln has the same idea in mind for the new MKC, one of four new models it is planning to bring out between now and 2014. The broader compact crossover segment has grown 200 percent over the past five years, including a 60?percent spurt in 2012 alone, notes Matt VanDyke, Lincoln?s new global marketing chief.?Yet while they account for a solid 11percent of the overall American automotive market, they?ve now jumped to an even more impressive 25?percent of the luxury segment.

While young, first-time buyers make up much of the market for compact CUVs and other downsized luxury products, VanDyke says it is equally significant that customers are also ?coming from other premium segment vehicles,? trading in larger, more traditional luxury products.

So, as with the CLA, the new Lincoln MKC will be offered with the sort of up-market features that normally wouldn?t be found on something nearly that small. In fact, the concept vehicle unveiled at the Detroit Auto Show featured a more lavishly appointed interior than Lincoln?s larger MKZ sedan, which made its debut late last year.

While it will help to load up these new products with plenty of luxury accoutrements, industry stylists are also working to give these downsized products more upscale designs.? Murat Gueler, who oversaw the exterior work on the MKC, and Soo Kang, who focused on the interior, put a particular focus on making the compact crossover look a lot larger than it really is.?

Particularly for the next generation of luxury customers, the idea of downsizing is not something they naturally shy away from.? If anything, they?re used to paying more for compact smartphones and tablet computers.?

And the industry is hoping that they?ll feel the same way about the latest generation of small luxury cars. The key, said analyst Peterson, will be to deliver all the features they?d traditionally expect on a bigger vehicle ?so they don?t feel like they have to sacrifice.?

Copyright 2013 The Detroit Bureau

Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/business/luxury-cars-buy-downsizing-trend-1C8087460

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সোমবার, ২৮ জানুয়ারী, ২০১৩

What holds chromosomes together? Structure of DNA-packaging proteins described

Jan. 28, 2013 ? To ensure that the genetic material is equally and accurately distributed to the two daughter cells during cell division, the DNA fibers must have an ordered structure and be closely packed. At the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried near Munich scientists have now elucidated the structure of a ring-shaped protein complex (SMC-kleisin), which ensures order in this packaging process. Together with their cooperation partners at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, they studied these proteins in bacteria and found structural analogies to the human complex.

The findings have now been published in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

In each cell about two meters of DNA must fit into a cell nucleus that has a diameter of only a few thousandths of a millimeter. There the DNA is organized in individual chromosomes in the form of very long filaments. If they are not equally and accurately distributed to the daughter cells during cell division, this can result in cancer or genetic defects such as trisomy 21. Therefore, to ensure safe transport of DNA during cell division the long and coiled DNA fibers must be tightly packed.

Scientists have only a sketchy understanding of this step. The SMC-kleisin protein complexes play a key role in this process. They consist of two arms (SMC) and a bridge (kleisin). The arms wrap around the DNA like a ring and thus can connect duplicated chromosomes or two distant parts of the same chromosome with each other.

Learning from bacteria Simple organisms like bacteria also use this method of DNA packaging. The scientists, in collaboration with colleagues from South Korea, have now elucidated the structure of a precursor of human SMC-kleisin complexes of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The researchers showed that the bacterial SMC-kleisin complex has two arms made of identical SMC proteins that form a ring. The arms differ in their function only through the different ends of the kleisin protein with which they are connected.

In humans the DNA packaging machinery is similarly organized. "We suspect that this asymmetric structure plays an important role in the opening and closing of the ring around the DNA," explains Frank B?rmann, PhD student in the research group 'Chromosome Organization and Dynamics' of Stephan Gruber. In addition, the scientists discovered how the ends of the kleisin can distinguish between correct and wrong binding sites on one pair of arms.

The cohesion of chromosomes is of critical importance for reproduction as well. In human eggs this cohesion must be maintained for decades to ensure error-free meiosis of the egg cell. Failure of cohesion is a likely cause for decreased fertility due to age or the occurrence of genetic defects such as trisomy 21. "The elucidation of the structure of SMC-kleisin protein complexes is an important milestone in understanding the intricate organization of chromosomes," says group leader Stephan Gruber.

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry.

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Journal Reference:

  1. Frank B?rmann, Ho-Chul Shin, J?r?me Basquin, Young-Min Soh, Victor Gim?nez-Oya, Yeon-Gil Kim, Byung-Ha Oh, Stephan Gruber. An asymmetric SMC?kleisin bridge in prokaryotic condensin. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.2488

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://feeds.sciencedaily.com/~r/sciencedaily/top_news/~3/v-RKjAiRhNo/130128081522.htm

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Firefighters: 180 dead in Brazil nightclub fire

BRASILIA, Brazil (AP) ? A fire swept through a crowded nightclub in southern Brazil early Sunday, killing at least 180 people and leaving at least 200 injured, police and firefighters said.

Sandro Meinerz, a spokesman for the police in the city of Santa Maria, told local media that the fire broke out at the Kiss club while a band was performing.

The cause of the fire is not yet known, officials said. The total number of victims is still unclear and there may be hundreds injured, Civil Police and regional government spokesman Marcelo Arigoni told Radio Gaucha.

Arigoni told the radio station a truck carrying 70 bodies had arrived at the Municipal Sports Center, which was being used as an improvised morgue.

Diario de Santa Maria reported that the fire started at around 2 a.m.

Rodrigo Moura, whom the paper identified as a security guard at the club, said it was at its maximum capacity of between 1,000 and 2,000, and partygoers were pushing and shoving to escape.

Ezekiel Corte Real, 23, was quoted by the paper as saying that he helped people to escape. "I just got out because I'm very strong," he said.

"Sad Sunday", tweeted Tarso Genro, the governor of the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. He said all possible action was being taken and that he would be in the city later in the day.

Santa Maria, at the southern tip of Brazil near the borders with Argentina and Uruguay, is a major university city with a population of around a quarter of a million.

The fire appeared to be among the deadliest in a nightclub since a 2004 fire killed 194 people at an overcrowded working-class nightclub in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

A blaze at the Lame Horse nightclub in Perm, Russia, broke out on Dec. 5, 2009, when an indoor fireworks display ignited a plastic ceiling decorated with branches, killing 152

A nightclub fire in the U.S. state of Rhode Island in 2003 killed 100 people after pyrotechnics used as a stage prop by the 1980s rock band Great White set ablaze cheap soundproofing foam on the walls and ceiling.

A welding accident reportedly set off a Dec. 25, 2000, fire at a club in Luoyang, China, killing 309.

Source: http://news.yahoo.com/firefighters-180-dead-brazil-nightclub-fire-123237312.html

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Rick Ross Targeted In Drive-By Shooting?

Multiple reports claims that rapper's Rolls Royce was targeted by nearly two dozen rounds on Monday morning (January 28) in Florida.
By Gil Kaufman

Rick Ross
Photo: Ilya S. Savenok/Getty Images

Source: http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1700875/rick-ross-drive-by-shooting.jhtml

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Crested Butte Community Events for February 2013 | Crested Butte ...

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